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Legal Law

Answer Key, Expected Cut-off and Difficulty level

Introduction

CLAT 2024 was held on December 03, 2023 from 2:00 P.M. to 4:00 P.M. The test was conducted across 139 Test Centres across the country. In this CLAT PG 2024 Analysis, we will go through the section-wise detailed analysis of the paper. Also, we will take a look at the difficulty level of questions, the pattern of the exam, and the weightage of topics.

Our CLAT PG 2024 Exam Analysis will include:

  1. Subject wise division of questions
  2. Difficulty level of the questions
  3. CLAT 2024 Question Paper
  4. CLAT 2024 Answer Key
  5. CLAT 2024 Expected Cut off

Changes in the CLAT PG 2024 Pattern

The Common Law Admission Test for Postgraduate Studies (CLAT PG) in 2024 introduced a paradigm shift, significantly diverging from the traditional pattern that candidates were accustomed to.

This year’s examination featured a remarkable increase in both the number of passages and questions, presenting a unique set of challenges for aspirants. The test comprised a staggering 24 passages, each accompanied by five questions, contributing to the overall length and complexity of the examination.

Despite the perceived moderate difficulty level, the voluminous content proved to be a daunting hurdle, impacting many candidates’ ability to complete the exam within the allocated time.

CLAT PG 2024 Question Paper

Candidates can now download the question paper PDF here.

CLAT PG 2024 Answer Key

Weightage of Subjects in CLAT PG 2024

The following subjects had more weightage in the exam:

  1. Constitutional Law (3 passages)
  2. Criminal Procedure Code (CRPC) (5 questions)
  3. Indian Penal Code (IPC) (5 questions)
  4. Evidence Act (5 questions)
  5. Jurisprudence and Companies Act featured prominently. Jurisprudence, with ten passages, emerged as a significant focus, reflecting its substantial weight in the examination.

The inclusion of tort Law, with a particular emphasis on negligence, was an unexpected addition, providing a new dimension to the exam.

Certain subjects experienced a reduction in the number of questions compared to previous years. These included the Industrial Disputes Act, Contract Act/SRA, Environment Law, TPA, International Law, IOS (types of IOS), Income Tax Act, and Personal Law. The shift in emphasis indicated an evolving landscape in terms of subject priorities.

CLAT PG 2024 Analysis

  • There was an unexpected increase in the number of passages as well as the difficulty level of questions.
  • The number of passages and questions made the paper lengthy and made the paper difficult to complete within given time.
  • However, the overall difficulty level of the paper can be said to be moderate.

It’s noteworthy that the challenges primarily emanated from the sheer length of the paper rather than the intrinsic difficulty of individual questions. Candidates with a robust conceptual understanding found the paper more manageable, while those relying on memorization faced a considerable challenge.

Jurisprudence questions were notably straightforward, deviating from the complex and nuanced questions seen in previous years. Public International Law maintained a moderate difficulty level, with variations between passages. Criminal law passages were generally considered easier, signaling a lesser emphasis on this area in the exam.

A striking departure was observed in the Specific Relief Act questions. Unlike previous years, questions were rooted in the object and reason of the Act rather than specific provisions or case laws. This shift underscored a growing emphasis on candidates’ ability to comprehend the underlying principles of laws, moving away from a rote memorization-centric approach.

The examination displayed a shift away from recent case laws, with only five passages covering cases from 2023. A notable decrease in the emphasis on cases from 2021 was observed, while cases from 2022 garnered more attention. The reduced focus on recent cases suggested a shift towards building legal reasoning on stable foundations provided by landmark cases.

The timeline of cases spanned from the 1970s to 2023, covering a diverse range of legal precedents. The sample papers that the consortium released foreshadowed this diversity, giving candidates a wide range of options for legal analysis.

Passage-wise CLAT PG 2024 Analysis

Passage I

Legal Concept: Rules of Natural Justice

Summary: Discusses the evolution and application of natural justice rules to administrative and quasi-judicial inquiries, emphasising the flexibility of their application.

Difficulty: Moderate

Ideal Attempts: 3-5

Passage II

Legal Concept: Interpretation of Statutes

Summary: Explores the court’s approach to interpreting statutes in A.K. Kraipak, focusing on the application of natural justice to administrative inquiries.

Difficulty: Easy-Moderate

Ideal Attempts: 3-5

Passage III

Legal Concept: Promissory Estoppel

Summary: Discusses the doctrine of promissory estoppel, the public interest exception, and the principles established in Shree Sidhbali Steels.

Difficulty: Moderate

Ideal Attempts: 3-5

Passage IV

Legal Concept: Federalism in Indian Context

Summary: Examines the asymmetric federal model for NCTD, highlighting the unique federal relationship between the Union and NCTD in the context of cooperative federalism.

Difficulty: Moderate-Difficult

Ideal Attempts: 3-5

Passage V

Content: The passage discusses the power of a magistrate to take cognizance based on a police report and whether the magistrate can compel the police to submit a charge sheet.

Legal Concept: Powers of a magistrate in accepting or rejecting police reports under the Code of Criminal Procedure

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Ideal Number of Attempts: 3-5

Passage VI

Content: The passage explores the legal aspects of provocation and self-defence in the context of criminal offences. It also mentions a specific case.

Legal Concept: Exceptions to Section 300 IPC, Provocation, and defences in criminal cases.

Difficulty Level: Easy-Moderate

Ideal Number of Attempts: 3-5

Passage VII

Content: The passage discusses the burden of proof in criminal cases, especially concerning insanity as a defence. It mentions the presumption of innocence and the burden on the accused.

Legal Concept: Burden of Proof, Presumption of Innocence, and the Standard of Proof in Criminal Cases

Difficulty Level: Easy-Moderate

Ideal Number of Attempts: 3-5

Passage VIII

Content: The passage delves into the liability of the government for tortious acts, citing constitutional provisions and past cases. It emphasises the principle that the government can be held liable for damages in cases of constitutional torts.

Legal Concept: Government liability for tortious acts and constitutional torts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Ideal Number of Attempts: 3-5

Passage IX

Content: This passage focuses on the liability of hospitals for the negligence of their staff, especially in the context of medical treatment. It discusses the burden of proof on hospitals once negligence is established.

Legal Concept: Negligence in medical treatment, hospital liability, and burden of proof.

Difficulty Level: Easy

Ideal Number of Attempts: 4-5

Passage X

Legal Concept: Precautionary Principle, Environmental Rule of Law

Summary: The passage discusses the application of the precautionary principle in environmental governance, emphasising the duty of the state to prevent environmental harm proactively. It introduces the concept of the environmental rule of law, highlighting its role in creating structures for environmental protection through a multi-disciplinary approach.

Difficulty Level: Easy

Ideal Number of Attempts: 4-5

Passage XI

Legal Concept: Doctrine of Frustration, Force Majeure

Summary: This passage explores the legal aspects of the frustration of contract, emphasising the multi-factorial approach required. It also discusses force majeure clauses and their diverse forms, clarifying their role in excusing non-performance under certain circumstances.

Difficulty Level: Easy

Ideal Number of Attempts: 3-5

Passage XII

Legal Concept: Specific Performance, Proposed Amendments to the Specific Relief Act

Summary: The passage outlines the Specific Relief Act, its discretionary powers for specific performance, and proposed amendments. It highlights the need for changes to adapt to economic development and infrastructure projects, proposing a shift towards making specific performance a general rule.

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Ideal Number of Attempts: 3-5

Passage XIII 

Legal Concept: The Consensual Structure of International Law

Summary: The passage discusses the challenges to the consensual structure of international law, emphasising attacks on its effectiveness and relevance in addressing global challenges. It suggests a potential shift towards nonconsensual lawmaking mechanisms and powerful international institutions.

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Ideal Number of Attempts: 3-5

Passage XIV 

Legal Concept: Standing and Jurisdiction in International Law

Summary: The passage presents Myanmar’s arguments on The Gambia’s lack of standing in bringing a case before the International Court of Justice (ICJ) regarding the Rohingya crisis. It discusses the distinction between injured and non-injured states and the relevance of reservations to the Genocide Convention.

Difficulty Level: Moderate-Difficult

Ideal Number of Attempts: 3-5

Passage XV

Legal Concept: Corporate Governance and Removal of Executive Chairman

Summary: The passage discusses the legal battle between Tata Sons and Cyrus Pallonji Mistry over the removal of Mistry as the Executive Chairman of Tata Sons. The National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT) initially rejected Mistry’s petition, but the National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (NCLAT) later reinstated him. However, the Supreme Court ultimately ruled in favour of Tata Sons, emphasising that the removal should be based on oppression or mismanagement.

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Ideal Number of Attempts: 3-5

Passage XVI

Legal Concept: Company Law and Committee Recommendations

Summary: The passage covers various aspects of company law, including the separation of roles for non-executive chairpersons and managing directors. It also refers to committee recommendations, such as those by the Kotak Mahindra Committee. The passage concludes with questions related to share qualification requirements under the Companies Act.

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Ideal Number of Attempts: 3-5

Passage XVII

Legal Concept: Industrial Disputes Act and Conditions for Retrenchment

Summary: This passage explores the conditions precedent to the retrenchment of workmen under the Industrial Disputes Act. It highlights the significance of giving notice and obtaining prior permission from the appropriate government. The passage cites a recent decision of the Bombay High Court in Esselworld Leisure Pvt. Ltd. v. Syam Kashinath Koli.

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Ideal Number of Attempts: 3-5

Passage XVIII

Legal Concept: ‘SA/GPA/WILL’ Transfers and Real Estate Transactions

Summary: The passage discusses the misuse of General Power of Attorney Sales or Sale Agreement/General Power of Attorney/Will transfers in real estate transactions. It emphasizes that such transactions facilitate tax evasion, black money circulation, and exploitation of legal loopholes.

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Ideal Number of Attempts: 3-5

Passage XIX

Legal Concept: Mortgage by Conditional Sale and Transfer of Property Act

Summary: The passage delineates the essentials of a mortgage by conditional sale, distinguishing it from a sale with a condition of repurchase. It emphasizes the importance of disclosure of income and the debtor-creditor relationship in such agreements.

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Ideal Number of Attempts: 3-5

Passage XX

Legal Concept: Settlement Commission and Income Tax Act

Summary: This passage discusses the provisions of the Income Tax Act related to the Settlement Commission. It focuses on the conditions for granting immunity from prosecution and the role of disclosure by the assessee in settlement proceedings.

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Ideal Number of Attempts: 3-5

Passage XXI

Legal Concept: Legal Moralism vs. Legal Neutrality

Summary: Examines whether laws should be based on moral principles and the debate between legal moralism (enforcing moral values) and legal neutrality (remaining morally neutral).

Difficulty Level: Easy

Ideal Number of Attempts: 3-5

Passage XXII

Legal Concept: Legal positivism vs. Natural Law Theory

Summary: Explores legal positivism, where law’s validity is based on its source, contrasting it with natural law theory, which argues for grounding law in moral or ethical principles.

Difficulty Level: Easy

Ideal Number of Attempts: 3-5

Passage XXIII

Legal Concept: Rights and Provisions for Muslim Divorcees

Summary: Describes the legal provisions for divorced Muslim women, including the right to seek maintenance and fair provisions from the ex-husband.

Difficulty Level: Easy

Ideal Number of Attempts: 3-5

Passage XXIV

Legal Concept: Matrimonial cruelty based on unsubstantiated allegations

Summary: Discusses how unsubstantiated allegations of extramarital affairs, considered cruel, can lead to divorce under the Hindu Marriage Act, citing legal precedents.

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Ideal Number of Attempts: 3-5

Expected Cut-off for CLAT PG 2024

Estimated cutoffs were tentative, with a predicted cutoff of 100+ for PSUs and 70+ for the top 5 NLUs. The remaining NLUs were speculated to have a cutoff of 55+. These estimations acknowledged the inherent variability in cutoff trends and aimed to provide a general guideline.

Conclusion

CLAT PG 2024 presented a distinctive challenge marked by its length and unexpected question patterns. While the overall difficulty was moderate, the time constraints posed a significant hurdle. The detailed CLAT PG 2024 analysis serves as a roadmap for aspirants seeking to understand the intricacies and trends of this year’s examination.

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